Upgrading Linux Versions 10.04 to 12.04

This is a simple process to upgrade from the 10.04 lucid to the newest 12.04 Precise Pangolin.  If you wish to force your LTS version to upgrade before the scheduled July force upgrade there are two simple commands:

do-release-upgrade -d


update-manager -d

Then there is a simple installation process to upgrade it.  If you have any further questions just comment and I will get back to you.

Handy Cisco Commands

Here is a list of some unknown and very helpful Cisco Commands in IOS.

1) Reload after a specific time or after a specific amount of time:

reload [text | in [hh:]mm [text] | at hh:mm [month day | day month] [text] | cancel]


Router# reload in 10

-This command will reload the device in 10 minutes.  This is a perfect Cisco command to use if you are not sure if the next set of commands will terminate your connection to it and you need to reverse it without consoling in.

Router# reload at 16:00

-This Cisco command will reload the device at 4:00pm.

Router# reload cancel

-This Cisco command simply cancels the reload if it planned in the future.

2) Resetting an Interface to a Default State

Router(config)# Default interface (Interface)

-This simple cisco command will reset an interface back to the default state for further configuration

3) Show Filters

Router# show run | section interface

-This filter will show the section of the configuration about the keyword, in this case interface.

Router# show run | begin interface

-This filter will find the first time the keyword is used and show the configuration from that point forward.

Router# show run | include ospf

-This filter will show any command that has been entered into the running configuration that includes a command with the work ospf in it.

Router# show run | exclude ospf

-This filter will remove every line with the keyword in it.

4) The Alias Cisco Command

Router(config)#alias exec s show ip interface brief

-The command is powerful. Using the alias command you can specify that when you are in the exec mode and you type “s” it will in turn input the full show ip interface brief command for you. This will save minutes and maybe hours of typing long commands. The alias Cisco command can be used on any letter and make it do any cisco command.

5) Key Cisco Commands

Ctrl+A Move cursor to the beginning of the line
Ctrl+E Move cursor to the end of the line
Up Retrieve last command from history
Down Retrieve next command from history
Ctrl+W Erase previous word
Ctrl+U Erase the entire line
Ctrl+C Exit configuration mode
Ctrl+Z Apply the current command and exit configuration mod

As always leave me a comment or contact me via the contact page.

Creating AD Group Policies

After installing Active Directory and working with it for about a week you maybe like me and are sick of the crazy default password restrictions. The solution is to create your own group policy. To do this you just need to follow these steps:

Step 1: Disable the Default Group Policy


Step 1

In your Server Manager click Features>Group Policy Management>Forrest:Your Domain>Domains>Your Domain. Then Right click on the Default Domain Policy and uncheck Enforced and Link Enabled. This should disable the policy, but I like to disable the functions itself so click Edit.

Step 2

Within this window right click on the top Default Policy and choose Properties.

Step 3

Check the box that Disables Computer Configuration settings and Disable User Configuration settings.

Step 2: Create a New Group Policy


Step 4

Close out and right click on your domain and choose Create a GPO in this domain, and Link it here… After that a pop-up comes up and you can name it what you wish. Following that you will see it listed next to where you found the Default Domain Policy. You can right click that again and choose Edit.

Step 5

Here you need to navigate to the Password Policy as in the image and here you can edit the following rules. These rules are pretty simple, but they are to require passwords to be not used within so long in the past, not so old, not to be changed so fast, this long in length, the password is complex enough, and encryption.

Enjoy and if you have any questions comment or send me a message on from the Contact Page.

Cisco Bridging Interfaces

This is a simple how to on bridging interfaces together. To begin this is an example of when you would use this:

Bridged Interfaces

Just as the diagram shows there are two interfaces on different VLANs that need to be merged as one. Here is the simple config to make this happen:

Router(config)#bridge irb
Router(config)#interface fa0/0
Router(config-if)#bridge-group 1
Router(config)#interface fa0/1
Router(config-if)#bridge-group 1

Router(config)#interface BVI1
Router(config-if)#ip address

Router(config)#bridge 1 protocol ieee
Router(config)#bridge 1 route ip


Enjoy and if you have any questions comment or send me a message on the contact me page


Cacti Server

This is a simple “how to” to install and monitor a Cisco device.


Install dependencies:

sudo apt-get install php5 php5-gd php5-mysql

Install Cacti:

sudo apt-get install cacti-spine


Configuring Cacti:

Browse to http://<IP ADDRESS>/cacti

Hit next throughout the next few screens and your configuration is complete.

Here you need to enter username and password as admin/admin and click login


Configuring Cisco Routers:

On the Cisco Devices:

cisco(config)# snmp-server community Cacti ro

Optional Commands:

snmp-server location Kansas City, KS
snmp-server contact John Doe
snmp-server chassis-id Cisco Router


Adding Devices:

Under Management select Devices on the left, then “Create devices”.

1st Step

On the right side select Add across from Devices.

2nd Step

Under General Host Options fill in a Description and the fully qualified Hostname or IP address. Then under SNMP Options, in the SNMP Version choose Version 2 or Version 3 of SNMP (more secure). In SNMP Community type what you configured earlier on the router, again mine is “TEST”. Now click Create.

3rd Step

Once you have created this device it will now pull in your SNMP information such as device uptime, location, and contact info. Now in the top right click “Create Graphs for this Host”. Under Data Query a list of interfaces with statistics available via SNMP is shown. Select an interface that you wish to monitor and check the box next to it on the right. Then click Create.

To add the source to a graph, click Default Tree in the center under Graph Trees.

4th Step

Click Add all the way on the right from Tree Items.

5th Step

Under the Tree Items section, for Tree Item Type select Host in the dropdown list. For the Host item select the descriptive name you previously chose for your router. Graphic Template should be the default option for Graph Grouping Style, but just confirm it. Then click Create.

6th Step

When new host is successfully added it should be listed with tree items above. Click on the Graphs Tab and then the descriptive host name on the left bar and you should see your graphs.  The data may take a while to populate and this may take up to 10 to 15 minutes for you to see actual data.  To analyze the data you can click anywhere on the graph to get a better insight as to the information shown.

7th Step

Enjoy and if you have any questions comment or send me a message on the contact me page

Sources & Thanks to these sites: